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  林纾翻译的《迦茵小传》在晚清中国社会深受国人的喜爱,这得益于他精妙的译笔在翻译过程中的运用。以春觉斋理论为依据,探讨译者如何运用插笔塑造生动形象的景物。具体体现在摹状格,比喻,拟人三种修辞的运用使得译文中的景物情韵悠长。   关键词《迦茵小传》;《春觉斋论文》;插笔   中图分类号H 文献标识码A 文章编号-()--   《迦茵小传》是一部描写青年男女反抗世俗观念和封建压迫,追求自由爱情的小说。其原著在晚晴中国社会鲜为人知,但译作却红极一时,深受国人的喜爱,这得益于译者林纾精妙的译笔。他古文创作的笔法影响着他翻译的全过程,他是在用他自己的译笔塑造着生动形象的景物,以古文家独具的艺术感受力和表现力进行文学翻译。   在《春觉斋论文》“用笔八则”这一章节中,林纾提及插笔“事有在文中若不相涉者,然不铺叙其事,则于传中本事为无根法在叙到私舸Γ非插笔则眉目不清,故必补齐所以至此为由;叙到纷烦处,非插笔则纲要不得,故必揭其所以必然之故”。林纾在翻译时,抓住景物的主要特征,运用插笔对其着力描绘,对原文中景物进行适当的改造,加工,润色,即钱钟书品论他译文笔法“颊上添毫”,使得景物更加生动形象,从而达到动静结合、虚实结合。本文将重点谈论林纾借用插笔插入摹状格,比喻,拟人三种修辞。   一、插笔插入摹状格   摹状格是一种古典文学修辞手法,即“通过把现实生活中千变万化的声音,丰富多彩的颜色,各种各样的形状,给予准确生动的摹写”。林纾利用插笔插入了摹状格,使得译文不再如原文般粗重呆板,而是声色俱佳,富有感染力。摹状格可以分为三类摹声,摹形,摹色,本节重点探讨前两种。   首先摹声,顾名思义,“用恰当的词句,把人和物的某种声音,给予真实的摹写”。P林纾在翻   译中,利用插笔加强读者想象中的听觉作用,创造理想的意境,使得读者获得一定的真实感和艺术享受。比如 his chattering teeth,被翻译为“齿震震作声”,chattering原意檠莱菡鸲的动作,而林纾翻译为震震作声,渲染出人物所处的寒冷的环境,读者仿佛可以身临其境地感受到人物害怕的心理。再如下例   ...and the sulky cabman drove off,yelling at the children in front of get out of the way of his horse, andlashing with his whip at those who clung behind.   而御者四麾其鞭,祛群小儿,辚辚而去   “the sulky cabman drove off”被翻译为“辚辚而去”,原意为阴沉的车夫驾车而去,林纾在翻译中插笔“辚辚”描写细致入微,惟妙惟肖,生动地描写出了马车走时留下的声响,即使走了很远,依然仿佛能听到马车的声音,渲染了依依不舍的气氛,使整个场景可感可触可观可闻可思。声是无形的,译者利用插笔将对音乐的感受默写出来,加强记忆,反复回味。   第二种,便是摹形,即“用恰当的词句,把人或物的某种形状模样默写出来”。林纾利用插笔突出形象,增强实感性,加深读者的印象,使读者获得形象的艺术享受。例如   ... following the trend of the coast northward, the eye falls upon thered roofs of the fishing village of Bradmouth.   立寺基北望,则燎白拉墨司小村,渔家红瓦鳞鳞然。   Perhaps in thewhole county there is no more solitary or desolate building, with its outlookon to the heath and the chain of melancholy meres where Samuelhad waylaid Joan, beyond which lies the sea.   庄居寥寂不嚣,荒田弥望,积水潭澄然映目   林纾的插笔“鳞鳞然”形象生动的描绘出小村庄里渔家房顶的样子,瓦片如鱼鳞一般层层排列,通过插入摹状,读者可以很容易地通过鱼鳞的样子联想到房顶的样子,增强了实感。而第二个例子,“澄然”描绘的是清澈而平静无波的水,译者捕捉事物的特色,运用插笔生动地表达出来,使读者展开联想,感受到了美丽的场景。   ... surrounding a grey and solitary houseknown as Moor Farm.   有小屋巍然,人称之曰摹亚庄。   The houses were tall, and covered with a dingy stucco, that here andthere had peeled away in flakes, exposing patches of yellow brick   屋制极{矗,以石灰墁其顶,墙壁多坏坍,斑驳如鹿皮纹   The homestead, which stands quite alone, for all the labourers employedabout the place live a mile or more away in the valley, is large,commodious ...   洛克所居,颇岿然高大,佃人居则去之稍远   同样,译者的插笔“巍然”、“{矗”、“岿然”都描摹出了建筑物高大伫立的样子,让读者感受到景物的原始形态。在翻译中,林纾与原作者共情,再用他自己的审美情趣和创作笔法有效地改写原文景物,使景物更加形象生动。如果读者与译者有着共同的审美情趣,便更能感受到译作中的美。译者运用插笔突出了景物的形象,渲染了气氛,增强了语言的祈使意义和表情意义。   二、插笔插入比喻   比喻是语言艺术的升华,是语言的信息功能和美学功能的有机结合。林纾利用插笔插入了比喻,把景物描写的更加形象生动,使人可见可感可悟,以增强语言的说服力和感染力。从而加强了语用意义,使读者易于接受。   Indeed, there was little variety in the routine of the bird ménage.   盖钵特家况,一如印版文字,无他变易”   原著中单纯地叙述盖钵特家里的境况没有太多的变化,而译者在翻译的过程中用插笔插入了比喻,这种变化就好像印刷雕版上一成不变的文字一样,使读者展开联想,增强了其祈使意义。再如以下的例子   The houses were tall, and covered with a dingy stucco, that here andthere had peeled away in flakes, exposing patches of yellow brick   屋制O{矗,以石灰墁其顶,墙壁多坏坍,斑驳如鹿皮纹   在原著的描述中,房子的墙壁多坍塌,斑驳不堪,译者在翻译的过程中,插笔增译了“如鹿皮纹”,形象生动的描写出了墙壁破败的样子,就好像鹿皮的纹路一样。译语的语用意义得到了增强。   The air was full of the voices of wind and storm, the galegroaned and shriekedamong the branches of the ancient trees; from thebeach a mile away came the sound of the hiss of the surge and of the dullboom of breakers ...   木叶既脱,风鸣条作声,凄厉可怖。海潮远沸,亦为风吞咽,如暗人吐口语。   众所周知,风是很难用语言去描述的。但此处的插笔形象地描述出海潮在远处涛涛作响和风呼呼作声,就像一个躲在暗处的人默默在远处说着话,情形着实可怖。译者通过插笔和比喻让抽象的景物具象化,渲染了气氛,易于读者理解。   三、插笔插入拟人   景物的描写常常和情感的表达息息相关,人常常因情感物,或因物感情。拟人就是通过把原属于人所有的品质、行为、情感等赋予物(大自然其他有生命或无生命的东西)。而由于汉英两种语言的差异,汉语中拟人使用较多,英语中拟人使用较少。在翻译时,林纾借用插笔,巧妙地将英语非拟人的表达转换成汉语拟人表达,其目的在于借物抒情。物在他的笔下更加形象生动,带给读者美的享受,引起读者的共鸣。比如下面的例子   Thus thought Joan; then, weary of the subject, she dismissed it fromher mind for a while, and, lying back upon the grass in idle contentment,watched the little clouds float across the sky till, far out to sea, theymelted into the blue of the horizon.   观天际飞云,片片相逐,直至海上,与水云合,蔚蓝一色,气极清明。   原文中“the little clouds float across the sky till”只是包含着少量的云朵在空中飘动,但是译者运用插笔描写出云的状态。“片片相逐”意思是说云一片一片相互追赶飘到天际。拟人手法的运用,似乎赋予云朵以生命,表现了云朵动态的样子。   By now they had turned off the main road, and, following a lanewhich was used to cart sand and shingle from the beach, had reached achalky slope known as the Cliff. Below them was a stretch of sand, acrosswhich raced the in-coming tide, and beyond lay the great ocean, blue inthe far distance, but marked towards the shore with parallel lines ofwhite-crested billows.   此时行经小径,至于海滩之次,沙线延长,海波起落,蚀及沙际,滞泊有声;更远则作蔚蓝之色,浪头层起作白色,远远作声。   译者运用插笔“滞泊有声”、“远远作声”,原文中海浪就好像一个人一样远远地发出声响。人的情感也许无影无形,难以言述,但将情感物化后,无情之物立马有情有义,栩栩如生,译者充分发挥“移情”作用,从而创造出的意境便于为读者理解与感受。   林纾有着很强的“化腐朽为神奇”之功力,特别在翻译的《迦茵小传》中有所体现。他在保持原作风格情调的基础上,有时给原作添油加料,使其文字更加生动。具体而言,即他谨慎地在译文中加入修辞。正如他在《春觉斋论文》述旨这一章中所提及,要使古文生情,关键在于“调辞以务似”。他正是在翻译时借助修辞和插笔,使译文情韵更加悠长。而他插笔的运用,对现代翻译实践也有所启示我们并不能随意地增添与原著无关的内容,而只能在充分地理解原著的基础上,运用译者的审美,将景物描绘地更加生动来吸引读者。我们要翻译出读者也更易理解的更具神韵的译文。   ⒖嘉南祝   林纾.春觉斋论文M//郭绍虞,罗根泽,编.中国古典文学理论批评专著选辑. 北京人民文学出版社,-.   钱钟书.林纾的翻译M.北京商务印书馆,.   姜宗伦.古典文学辞格概要M.昆明云南人民出版社,.   Haggard, H. Joan Haste .London Longmans, Green and Co..   哈葛德. 迦茵小传M.林纾,译.北京商务印书馆,.   (责任编辑 刘知国)   Study on the Additionin theScenery Description in Joan Haste Translated by Lin Shu   ZHOU Ying   (Department of Humanities, Anhui Technical College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wuhu , China)   Abstract One of Lin Shu’s translation works Joan Haste was well accepted among Chinese people in the late Qing Dynasty, due to his fine translation skills. Based on the study of the theories put forward by Lin Shu in his book “The Research of Classic Prose in Chun Jue-zhai”, this paper explores how Lin Shu uses addition in his translation to create vivid scenery. Specifically he uses description, metaphor and personification so that the images of scenery in the translation work are charming and impressive.   Key WordsJoan Haste; The Research of Classic Prose in Chun Jue-zhai; addition

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